I don’t believe the deer problem in the Penticton area is due to an overpopulation of deer. Nor is it due to “civilization” infringing on the deer’s natural habitat. The problem is that deer in this area (mainly does), are no longer afraid of humans. Back in the ‘60s and ‘70s, it was rare to hear of deer coming right into town. They would come into orchards and properties that bordered forests, but rarely beyond that. When people came near them, they ran away quickly.
It’s been well over two decades since the government closed the regular hunting season on mule does and, until recently, on white-tailed does. These deer have learned that humans are not a threat to them, and they teach that lesson to their young.
To trap and cull a number of deer each year, at a cost of $150 each, does little to restore in them a healthy fear of humans. The problem will likely have to be dealt with long into the future.
Open a mule doe season for two weeks each fall and the does will very quickly learn that humans are to be feared. The solution need not have a cost attached to it.